电商平台“二选一”行为的反垄断法规制——兼论滥用相对优势地位理论的适用不足
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国家社会科学基金重大项目:互联网经济的法治保障(18ZDA150)


Anti-monopoly Law on the "Choose One from Two" Action of E-commerce Platform: On the Insufficient Application of the Theory of Abuse of Superior Bargaining Position
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    摘要:

    电商平台“二选一”行为近来受到反垄断执法与司法机关的关注,滥用相对优势地位理论也被运用于相关案件的处理中。由于当前我国电商市场动态性较强、消费者粘性较小、商户转移成本逐渐降低以及平台抗压能力较强,滥用相对优势地位理论的核心“纵向依赖性”可操作性较差。该理论的适用可能违背竞争中性理念、过度干预市场以及异化《反垄断法》立法目的。在对电商平台“二选一”行为进行反垄断法规制时,界定电商平台相关市场方面应注重考察商户所在的付费市场,排除传统市场并明确区分不同类型的电商平台;认定电商平台市场支配地位方面应将商户规模纳入市场份额,适当延长认定交易量型市场份额的时间,并重视平台生态以及数据对市场支配地位的塑造,以及考虑商户转移成本、消费者偏好与配套设施标准性等市场壁垒;以行为对有效竞争机制的损害为重点,只在行为限制竞争的消极效应明显大于平台经营效率、消费者福利提升等积极效应时,认定行为违反《反垄断法》。

    Abstract:

    The "choose one from two" action of e-commerce platforms has recently attracted the attention of anti-monopoly law enforcement and judicial authorities.The theory of abuse of a superior bargaining position has also been applied to the processing of related cases.Due to the current dynamics of China's e-commerce market, low consumer stickiness, gradual reduction of merchant transfer costs, and strong platform pressure resistance, the core "vertical dependence" of the theory of abuse of a superior bargaining position is poorly operable.Although this theory can solve the unfairness between strong e-commerce platforms and weak merchants, since the "choose one from two" action also has positive effects such as stimulating platform competition, its application may violate the neutral concept of competition, excessive intervention in the market, and alienation the Anti-Monopoly Law.When defining the relevant market, we must pay attention to the payment market where the merchant is located, exclude the traditional market and clearly distinguish the different types of e-commerce platforms.When we determine the dominant position of the e-commerce platform market, the merchant side should be included in the market share, and the time of identifying the trading volume market share should be appropriately extended.It also attaches importance to the platform ecology and data on the dominant position of the market, and market barriers such as transfer costs, consumer preferences.Using the principle of reasonableness to determine whether the action is illegal, only when the negative effect of action restricting competition is significantly greater than the positive effects, such as platform operation efficiency and consumer welfare improvement, the action could be deemed as violating the anti-monopoly law.

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吴太轩,赵致远.电商平台“二选一”行为的反垄断法规制——兼论滥用相对优势地位理论的适用不足[J].重庆邮电大学学报(社会科学版),2020,32(6):59-68

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  • 收稿日期:2020-01-01
  • 最后修改日期:2020-05-26
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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-12-02

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